Description: Under Layered Suspicion identifies whole-of-government policies and patterns of audit practices that together demonstrate potential biases in Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) audits of Muslim-led charities. Muslim-led charities have for years expressed concerns about the selection, frequency, and reasoning behind audits of their organizations. The findings from Under Layered Suspicion suggest that there is a basis for these concerns. The report draws attention to the Government of Canada’s approach to anti-terrorism financing and anti-radicalization, and the legitimate concerns of bias embedded within their framing. When operationalized by the CRA, these policies seem to make Muslim-led charities exceptionally vulnerable to audits, or worse, revocation of charitable status. The targeting of Muslim-led charities not only undermines the critical work these organizations do to combat racism and discrimination in society, but also calls into question Canada’s commitment to inclusive multiculturalism. This research reveals the need for a formal commitment and concentrated effort by the Government of Canada to investigate patterns of bias within the machinery of its agencies and bureaucracies.
- Anver Emon, Professor of Law and History, Canada Research Chair in Islamic Law and History
- Nadia Hasan, Chief Operating Officer, National Council of Canadian Muslims
Funders: SSHRC, University of Toronto’s Connaught Secretariat